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Friday, 28 September 2012

Primary Rate Interface

Primary Rate Interface

The other ISDN access available is the Primary Rate Interface (PRI), which is carried over an E1 (2048 kbit/s) in most parts of the world. An E1 is 30 'B' channels of 64 kbit/s, one 'D' channel of 64 kbit/s and a timing and alarm channel of 64 kbit/s.
In North America PRI service is delivered on one or more T1 carriers (often referred to as 23B+D) of 1544 kbit/s (24 channels). A PRI has 23 'B' channels and 1 'D' channel for signalling (Japan uses a circuit called a J1, which is similar to a T1). Inter-changeably but incorrectly, a PRI is referred to as T1 because it uses the T1 carrier format. A true T1 (commonly called "Analog T1" to avoid confusion) uses 24 channels of 64 kbit/s of in-band signaling. Each channel uses 56 kb for data and voice and 8 kb for signaling and messaging. PRI uses out of band signaling which provides the 23 B channels with clear 64 kb for voice and data and one 64 kb 'D' channel for signaling and messaging. In North America, Non-Facility Associated Signalling allows two or more PRIs to be controlled by a single D channel, and is sometimes called "23B+D + n*24B". D-channel backup allows for a second D channel in case the primary fails. NFAS is commonly used on a T3.
PRI-ISDN is popular throughout the world, especially for connecting PBXs to PSTN.
While the North American PSTN can use PRI or Analog T1 format from PBX to PBX, the POTS or BRI can be delivered to a business or residence. North American PSTN can connect from PBX to PBX via Analog T1, T3, PRI, OC3, etc...
Even though many network professionals use the term "ISDN" to refer to the lower-bandwidth BRI circuit, in North America BRI is relatively uncommon whilst PRI circuits serving PBXs are commonplace.

Data channel

The bearer channel (B) is a standard 64 kbit/s voice channel of 8 bits sampled at 8 kHz with G.711 encoding. B-Channels can also be used to carry data, since they are nothing more than digital channels.
Each one of these channels is known as a DS0.
Most B channels can carry a 64 kbit/s signal, but some were limited to 56K because they traveled over RBS lines. This was commonplace in the 20th century, but has since become less so.

Signaling channel

The signaling channel (D) uses Q.931 for signaling with the other side of the link.

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