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Wednesday, 22 August 2012

Make SIP Technology Easy

For all SIP professionals and telecom engineers.  Blog is specially for all telecom VOIP architects working in telecom field..please stay tuned

The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an IETF-defined signaling protocol widely used for controlling communication sessions such as voice and video calls over Internet Protocol (IP). The protocol can be used for creating, modifying and terminating two-party (unicast) or multiparty (multicast) sessions. Sessions may consist of one or several media streams.
Other SIP applications include video conferencing, streaming multimedia distribution, instant messaging, presence information, file transfer and online games[citation needed].
The SIP protocol is an Application Layer protocol designed to be independent of the underlying Transport Layer; it can run on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), or Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).It is a text-based protocol, incorporating many elements of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).

Network elements

SIP also defines server network elements. Although two SIP endpoints can communicate without any intervening SIP infrastructure, which is why the protocol is described as peer-to-peer, this approach is often impractical for a public service. RFC 3261 defines these server elements.

User Agent

A SIP user agent (UA) is a logical network end-point used to create or receive SIP messages and thereby manage a SIP session. A SIP UA can perform the role of a User Agent Client (UAC), which sends SIP requests, and the User Agent Server (UAS), which receives the requests and returns a SIP response. These roles of UAC and UAS only last for the duration of a SIP transaction.[7]
A SIP phone is a SIP user agent that provides the traditional call functions of a telephone, such as dial, answer, reject, hold/unhold, and call transfer.[8][9] SIP phones may be implemented as a hardware device or as a softphone. As vendors increasingly implement SIP as a standard telephony platform, often driven by 4G efforts, the distinction between hardware-based and software-based SIP phones is being blurred and SIP elements are implemented in the basic firmware functions of many IP-capable devices. Examples are devices from Nokia and Research in Motion.[10]
In SIP, as in HTTP, the user agent may identify itself using a message header field 'User-Agent', containing a text description of the software/hardware/product involved. The User-Agent field is sent in request messages, which means that the receiving SIP server can see this information. SIP network elements sometimes store this information,[11] and it can be useful in diagnosing SIP compatibility problems.

Proxy server

An intermediary entity that acts as both a server (UAS) and a client (UAC) for the purpose of making requests on behalf of other clients. A proxy server primarily plays the role of routing, which means its job is to ensure that a request is sent to another entity "closer" to the targeted user. Proxies are also useful for enforcing policy (for example, making sure a user is allowed to make a call). A proxy interprets, and, if necessary, rewrites specific parts of a request message before forwarding it.

Registrar

A server that accepts REGISTER requests and places the information it receives in those requests into the location service for the domain it handles which registers one or more IP addresses to a certain SIP URI, indicated by the sip: scheme, although other protocol schemes are possible (such as tel:). More than one user agent can register at the same URI, with the result that all registered user agents will receive a call to the SIP URI.
SIP registrars are logical elements, and are commonly co-located with SIP proxies. But it is also possible and often good for network scalability to place this location service with a redirect server.

Redirect server

A user agent server that generates 3xx (Redirection) responses to requests it receives, directing the client to contact an alternate set of URIs. The redirect server allows proxy servers to direct SIP session invitations to external domains.

Session border controller

Session border controllers Serve as middle boxes between UA and SIP server for various types of functions, including network topology hiding, and assistance in NAT traversal.

Gateway

Gateways can be used to interface a SIP network to other networks, such as the public switched telephone network, which use different protocols or technologies.

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